Wafers are thin pieces of semiconductor material found in electronic and photovoltaic applications. They are mostly formed out of crystalline.
Wafers can have various sizes and diameters. A number of factors exist that alter their shape. When wafers have their full thickness they can withstand any outer influences from affecting their shape. Thin-films are known as common influencers on wafer bow parameters.
K-Space Associates is a leading manufacturer of in-situ and ex-situ tools for monitoring almost every thin-film deposition process to control thin-film stress. Such tools as the kSA MOS delivers accurate parameters of thin-film stress, which directly influences surface flatness of wafers.
Because of the different materials getting in contact with each other, yielding change in their characteristics, measuring thin-film stress is important for ultimate production control, and reduction of defects. K-Space works with many of the leading manufacturers, and its measurement tools can be found worldwide.